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Cho Man-Sik (1883-1950) was a nationalist and an elder in the Presbyterian Church,

he became known as the ‘Ghandi of Korea’.


Cho Man-Sik took part in the Independence marches on March 1st 1919, and was one of

the 50,000 or so Koreans arrested.


During the 1920’s he was active in promoting nationalism in the economy by encouraging

people to buy Korean goods.


The People’s Committee of North Korea was renamed as the Five Provinces Administrative Bureau of

the People’s Republic of Korea, in 1945, with Cho Man-Sik at its head.

(See Introduction to Korean History and Culture, Andrew C Nahm)


He went on to form the Korean (Chosun) Democratic Party of the Christians, nationalists and

intellectuals, as the first leader of North Korea Cho stood up to the Soviets.


In late 1945, when Kim Il Sung returned to ‘liberated Korea’ in a Soviet uniform he was forced

to share the leadership of North Korea.


Cho Man-Sik was anti-Soviet in his stance and as a result he opposed Kim Il Sung,

who was supported by the Soviets.


Cho Man-Sik was again arrested along with many other anti-Soviet nationalists,

who did not manage to flee to South Korea.


Cho Man-Sik was executed by the Communists in 1950 as the persecution of the Christians began.


It was therefore Kim Il Sung who rose to power in North Korea with the approval of the Soviet Union.


Cho Man-Sik was declared a martyr and honoured by the government of South Korea in 1970.

In his encyclopaedia General Choi told us:

Ko Dang is the pseudonym of the patriot Cho Man-Sik, who devoted his life to the

Korean Independence Movement and to the education of the Korean people. The 45

movements signify the last two digits of 1945 the year Korea was liberated from

Japanese occupation.